Information and Communication Technologies
Fraudulent Student Case [Information and Communication Technologies Research Paper Order]:
XX Kettell Ave
XX Burjen way
Emails he used: ronniewhelan2003@....com, phil_jones_663@.....com
Below is a model paper written for the person associated with the name: Phil Jones, UK (he also used the name: Steve McLean) who paid for the service and submitted it as his own for an academic credit (he admitted it himself). Then he did a chargeback claiming he has never received the project.
If you know the name of the university he attended to, please contact me immediately so that I could provide ultimate evidence of his scamming and cheating activities.
November 24, 2011
Information and Communication Technologies Research Paper
Empirical evidence points to the fact that annually, "developing and transitional economies" expend at least $800 billion on Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) (Heeks 2010). Even poor nations in Africa have been found to spend at least $60 billion in 2010, equating to a figure of roughly $60 per person. Interestingly, in Africa, people with higher income have been known to spend at least 11% to 27% of their earnings on their mobile phones (Heeks 2010). Considering the poverty of people living in countries such as Tanzania, these figures suggest that there are times that these individuals forego more important needs such as food, education or clothing just so they could own mobile phones and use them. These huge spendings are expected to find their way from these developing countries to developed countries that have been the homes of majority of the world's ICT multinational organizations. Here, development associated with ICT as well as investment funds move from the global North to South. The World Bank lends out and guarantees an average of $800 million annually on ICTs and development, and an average of $1.5 billion annually on projects and programs that feature important ICT elements (Heeks 2010). Under this perspective, one would perhaps wonder how all these money being spent on ICTs contribute to development. In the United States, ICTs are harnessed for economic productivity and have virtually altered the economy and lives of Americans (Laitner & Erhard-Martinez 2008). For instance, ICT applications and systems have been used to achieve economic and energy productivity. It has been proven time and again that greater levels of productivity result in greater economic returns. In the United States, industries are aware that for real economic miracles to take place, the first area to consider is productivity growth. With the rapid advancements in technology, the United States immediately found the benefits of harnessing ICTs for the achievement of its economic goals. "Faster, better and cheaper microprocessors, computers, and telecommunications equipment," combined with enhanced software capabilities that propel performance - have even accelerated not only the adoption of these technologies but also their increasing networked usefulness. More importantly, the United States has not only been optimizing ICTs for economic growth, but for sustaining it. This paper will take a closer look at different ICT sectors, and will place emphasis on Web and Internet services - a sector that has pervaded the lives of people in four corners of the globe.
Business Management and ICT
Companies are perennially seeking ways to be profitable and continue growing. Because of its rapid advancements, technology is no longer considered as a mere enabler of business processes but instead, has become a core determinant of an organization's growth strategy (Lopperi & Sengupta 2004). Moreover, using the Internet has become quite affordable such that e-business has become a major part of economic growth not only in the United States but on a global context. In e-business, the operation of the communication and exchange of data is done remotely by optimizing the usefulness of the Internet. There have been amazing e-business successes, but there have also been resounding failures. Effective companies use modern knowledge networks and e-learning as tools for decision making enabling them to develop dynamic custom content and services for consumers (Nerguizian, Mhiri & Saad 2011). The integration of ICT tools to enhance business performance and to provide improved services to customers has led to evolving e-business practices. E-business is not applicable only to virtual organizations - also known as "click and mortar" businesses - that base their operations on the Internet, but also to traditional organizations - also known as "brick and mortar" businesses (Nerguizian, et al. 2011, p. 50). Different relations of exchange and communication benefit from technological contributions adopted in e-business. Please see Appendix page for the most significant associations between companies and their customers (Nerguizian, et al. 2011).
Beginning in the mid-1990s, the e-business concept has been available in most business functions, such as:
- Procurement, in the form of e-procurement, online bidding, e-sourcing, and reverse auctions
- Sales, in the form of e-commerce, B2B and B2C
- Marketing, in the form of e-mailing and search engine optimization
- Human Resource, through Intranet and portal B to E; and
- Management, through teleprocedures and electronic invoices (Nerguizian, et al. 2011).
Sometimes, companies need to experiment with several new technologies simultaneously in order to find the appropriate "fit" for the organization. However, the ICT adoption for e-business framework posits that companies go through three stages before it can successfully integrate ICT capabilities into its operations. The first stage is the pre-adoption stage, wherein organizations take an internal perspective and examines the fitness of the new technology and its intended uses, as well as the value of the new technology to the company (Nerguizian, et al. 2011). The next stage is the adoption stage, wherein they closely study potential barriers such as environmental and organizational dimensions that could inhibit effective use of the technology. The next stage is the implementation stage, wherein the company uses adoption facilitators as well to help in the diffusion of the technology within the organization (Nerguizian, et al. 2011).
Digital Media and ICT
As mentioned earlier, ICT plays a very significant role in economic development but it is also undeniable that it is currently playing an indispensible role in social development. Thus, numerous initiatives have been created to pave the path for digital inclusion in which various digital media are put to good use in different aspects of technical, cultural, rural and community development. One thing that has become of paramount importance is the use of ICT by means of digital media, in education (Pischetola 2011). Twenty-first century ICT provide users with excellent opportunities to "reshape their learning spaces, means and modalities" (Pischetola 2011, p. 2). With the development of TV webcasting, wikis, social networks or blogging, content sharing and collaboration have been facilitated, including communication across "geographies, time zones and cultures" (Pischetola 2011, p. 2). These days, digital media and ICT play central roles at all levels of education, especially as catalysts for educational change (Henriksen 2011). It is anticipated that as developments in ICT continue, new educational paradigms will emerge as well so that societies' demands for learning and teaching are met.
Digital media and ICT, particularly digital communication, has become increasingly important. Communication via the Internet enables the transformation of unique, traditional means of expression, writing, speech, images and sound into a unified one - a digital one - so that fusion of various media and communication channels take place. For students, this makes for a rich learning environment, but it also demands that new competencies be learned and mastered. This encompasses competencies in connection with communication in virtual spaces, as well as the ethical and social challenges that emerge in these contexts. Meanwhile, "digitalization, interactivity and virtuality" perpetually give rise to new possibilities and enlarges the sphere of how teaching may be organized and conducted (Henriksen 2011). By means of a multidisciplinary research environment, there should now be focus on the development of a solid theoretical foundation, and the ensuring of "long-term creation of knowledge in the area of media, ICT and learning" (Henriksen 2011). There should be focus on ICT-mediated learning opportunities on the one hand, and digitally-based learning processes in and out of academic institutions on the other (Henriksen 2011).
One of the most relevant questions asked these days is, "What is a computer without good software?" (Fontys 2011). Software is a key pillar in global ICT industries. In China, for instance, both the central and local governments (Shanghai and Beijing) are promoting the ICT industry by arranging for funding of software start-ups and incubators (World Bank 2006). In the United States, policymakers have also been placing heightened attention on ICT policies pertaining to software development because of a perceived gap between ideal ICT infrastructures and everyday reality. It is important to note that software development requires highly skilled specialists. To note, it has been discovered that less than 20% of software development projects of large companies succeed, in the sense that they are perfectly compliant with customer specifications, are delivered on time, and within the specified budget (Forselius 2006).
According to studies undertaken by the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group and the Finnish Software Measurement Association, the "simpler and better defined are the projects, the more productive and successful is the development" (Forselius 2006). There are times when software development programs may be run as a single project, but more often than not, this does not generate successful outcomes. A program typically consists of different project parts that demand different types of project management. For instance, software package configuration requires different management from customer specific software development. The differences between the different types of projects lies in the way they manage certain elements of the project, including risk management and planning. It is seldom that organizations have effective business rules for dividing software development into standalone and independent projects. Usually, one large development program begins as one project, but is subsequently subdivided as management issues emerge. Hence, if the software program is not compact and manageable, it becomes crucial then to divide it into several projects. There are certain rules that may be used to achieve this, including:
- If the program consists of ICT development and other development work, like for example "manual process development, reorganizing staff or technical development," then different types of work must be assigned to different projects
If the developer applies an incremental or iterative development approach, each iteration or increment must be assigned to a separate project; and
Once the program is intentionally halted due to factors such as pending external decisions, then the work before or after the break must be assigned to separate projects (Forselius 2006).
One very pressing concern that ICT firms face is piracy and intellectual property rights challenges. In China for instance, as much as 92% of software is pirated, providing firms with little incentives to invest significant Research & Development resources in the creation of new products. Hence, for China, this becomes a serious problem for software vendors and a major barrier to the development of a packaged software industry (World Bank 2006).
Networking and Communications and ICT
As heightening globalization results in more diverse organizational workforces, communication issues need to be promptly resolved now more than ever. Because of ICT, communication and the exchange of information no longer has to be confined according to time or geography. Using organizations as example, an organizational communication network is the "pattern of information flow among task group members" (Zainbooks 2008). It is important to note at this point that communication networks may be used between organizations as well, or between individual and organization. There are five network structures:
1. The first three centralized networks are structured in such ways that most messages flow through a pivotal person:
The wheeled network, wherein all messages are course through an individual at the core of the wheel
The chain network, wherein certain members are able to communicate more with a certain network member but the person of the centre of the chain retains control of the messages
The Y network, in which the member at the fork "Y" is the core person in the network (Zainbooks 2008).
2. There are two decentralized networks that enable freer communication among different members:
The circle network, wherein each individual is able to communicate with individual on either side
The star network in which each individual is able to communicate with any other member (Zainbooks 2008).
Currently, ICT has had a very positive impact on managerial communication. Two Developments in ICT that have been beneficial on communications are: networked computer systems and wireless capabilities. Networked computer systems include (i) e-mail; (ii) voice mail; (iii) teleconferencing; and (iv) videoconferencing (Zainbooks 2008). Wireless capabilities rely on signals that are sent through space or air without any physical connection, by means of "microwave signals, satellites, radio waves and radio antennas, or infrared light rays" (Zainbooks 2008).
Web and Internet Services and ICT
In this era of intensely competitive markets, a company cannot afford to be a laggard by failing to adapt to the technologies available for automating its processes. Companies would greatly benefit in harnessing ICT, the Web and the Internet through a proactive and planned approach (Bulearca & Bulearca 2009). Companies have to accept that the Internet is an inescapable reality, as well as, the need to effectively and carefully learn its uses in order to optimize the advantages and myriad opportunities it offers, at the same time avoiding the failures of .com companies. Thus, the most important concern here is not whether to deploy Internet technology, but how to deploy it so that its benefits are maximized and its pitfalls avoided (Bulearca & Bulearca 2009). According to Internetworldstats, Internet penetration was at an average of 20% internationally in 2007, evidencing a 256.6% increase between the periods 2006 and 2007 (Bulearca & Bulearca 2009). The same study reported that B2B websites have achieved a high penetration among target decision makers, with four out of five using these sites (Bulearca & Bulearca 2009).
The benefits of using the Internet for business include a cost-effective setup, affordability of transmission, as well as "instant and ubiquitous global communication" (Vemuri & Siddiqi 2009, p. 460). In order to reach people located in other parts of the world without worrying about costs, the Internet can provide that connectivity through instant messaging, voice or video conferencing, or through electronic mails. Communication has been redefined and has greatly advanced because of the integration of telecommunication technologies with the World Wide Web. The Internet is now a medium through which important information related to business transactions are made, making it indispensible for global business decision making. Moreover, it is also the medium that is increasingly used in order to complete transactions as customers are becoming more confident of electronic transactions and the relative safety and dependability of using it. Information and ICT infrastructures are the pre-requisites for the Internet to become an effective tool for information gathering, processing and dissemination. Before the age of the Internet, businesses had to expend considerable amounts for acquiring urgently needed information through private channels. The Internet and its ICT infrastructures are now providing organizations better access to global markets, and enable activities such as electronic data interchange and electronic funds transfer.
Meanwhile, new ICT platforms such as Web 2.0 offer new functionalities for businesses. These functionalities have been known to enhance the competitiveness of firms because they provide "higher speed, higher quality, higher cost-saving, higher innovative capabilities, customer satisfaction and trust" (Chun-Hsien & Hun-Szu 2009, 250). The functionalities provided by Web 2.0 are (i) Yellow Page; (ii) "Groups forming for fostering trust" such as Wiki Central wherein employees can effectively share and store in-progress project data; (iii) informal training; (iv) formal training and conference; (v) public intelligence collection; (vi) public service; (vii) locally cultured blog and (viii) "vivid multimedia" (Chun-Hsien & Hun-Szu 2009, p. 250). All of these new features are designed to make the Web experience more relevant to the business world.
ICT specialists who work behind the scenes of Internet service provision and web design and development have to be endowed with special skills that they can acquire through education, training and practice (Llorens-Garcia, Llinas-Audet & Sabate 2009). People who are interested to enter this field need to have the knowledge, capabilities and character for the job. Knowledge pertains to the experience and training that professionals accumulate; capabilities pertain to skills, abilities and proficiencies; and, character refers personality and outlook according to personal experiences (Llorens-Garcia, et al. 2009). The important skills for ICT professionals are change management, commitment to customer service, commitment to excellence, communication, creativity, decisiveness, empathy, innovation, leadership, knowledge management, motivation, negotiation, objective oriented, personal development, persuasiveness, proactive, problem-solving skills, strategy and planning, and teamwork (Llorens-Garcia, et al. 2009).
The ideal profile of an ICT specialist consists of software development, systems design and management and deployment of information technologies. For senior managers, the skills and competencies required is ICT Management. For middle-management, the skills and competencies required are development of research and technology; ICT consultancy; ICT sales and marketing management; integration and implementation testing engineering; management of ICT projects; and security specialist in telematics. For rank positions, skills, experience and knowledge of the following are needed: digital signals; design of communication networks; design of ICT products; development and maintenance of software and applications; digital design; network and data communication engineering; programming and multimedia design;radio frequency engineering; systems software design; systems specialist; and, technical assistance (Llorens-Garcia 2009).
Using secondary research through mostly peer-reviewed journals, it has been discerned that the ICT industry is one of the most relevant in global markets today. ICT is deployed in numerous sectors, including Business Management, Digital Media, Software Development, Networking and Communications, and Web and Internet Services. ICT is used in different ways in the aforementioned sectors because of the businesses' diverse interests. The Web and Internet services will increasingly use ICT because it is an evolving medium that has transformed how transactions and customer relations are conducted in recent years. Studies have consistently evidenced that ICT is fast becoming an indispensible field, and this means that employment opportunities are also healthy. The sector of Web and Internet services is particularly attractive because of the high demand for labour in this field. However, it is important to remember that to qualify in this sector, one must have the requisite knowledge, capabilities and character that can be achieved through formal education and hands-on experiences. The results of this research are reliable, considering that the most significant information were, as mentioned earlier, gathered from peer-reviewed sources.
Figure 1: Important e-Business Interactions Between Companies and Customers
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Chun-Hsien, L, & Hun-Szu, L 2009, 'Increasing competitiveness of a firm and supply chain with Web 2.0 initiatives', International Journal of Electronic Business Management, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 248-255.
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Laitner, J, & Ehrhardt-Martinez, K 2008, 'Information and communication technologies: the power of productivity (Part I)', Environmental Quality Management, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 47-66.
Llorens-Garcia, A, Llinas-Audet, X, & Sabate, F 2009. 'Professional and interpersonal skills for ICT specialists.' [Accessed 24 November 2011] http://upcommons.upc.edu/e- prints/bitstream/2117/7527/1/getPDF.pdf
Lopperi, K, & Sengupta, S 2004, 'Are we ready? The state of wireless e-business in the USA*', Information Systems & E-Business Management, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 293-307.
Nerguizian, V, Mhiri, R, & Saad, M 2011, 'Active e-learning approach for e-business', International Journal of e-Business Management, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 48-60.
Pischetola, M 2011, 'Digital media and learning evolution: a research on sustainable local empowerment', Global Media Journal: American Edition, vol. 11, no. 18, pp. 1-11.
Vemuri, V, & Siddiqi, S 2009, 'Impact of commercialization of the internet on international trade: a panel study using the extended gravity model', International Trade Journal, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 458-484.
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Zainbooks 2008. 'Communication networks and channels ICT.' [Accessed 24 November 2011] http://www.zainbooks.com/books/management/principles-of- management_43_communication-networks-and-channels-ict.html
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